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Health Glossary: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Proven Results

With a long history of traditional use, Medicinal Spice Oils have proven themselves time and again as safe yet potent healers and preventers of disease. Modern science has verified these traditional uses. See articles and research below on the following:

Alzheimer's Disease
Antibiotic Resistant Infection
Bacterial Infection
Bacterial Infection 2
Cancer 2
Childhood Infections
Common Cold

E. Coli
Free Radicals
Free Radicals 2
Fungal Infections
Heart Attack
Poor Memory
Poor Memory 2
Prostate Cancer
Fungus, Yeast,
Parasites, Bacteria



Health Glossary

Welcome to the Pure-le Natural Health Glossary. A thorough and complete guide to conditions and terminology used in natural and allopathic medicine. We have compiled a list of frequently used health, natural health and allopathic terms and have defined them in clear and simple everyday language.

Term Synonyms Definition
T2   A tumour of a certain size, defined by convention according to the location and type of tumour.
T cell   A type of white blood cell (lymphocyte) that is part of the body's immune system.
T cell leukemia   A type of leukemia caused by a virus in which T-lymphocytes divide uncontrollably.
T cell lymphoma   A cancer of the immune system that appears in the skin; also called mycosis fungoides.
Tachycardia   Abnormally rapid heart rate (more than 100 beats per minute).
Tachypnea   Rapid breathing.
Tamoxifen   A hormonally related drug that has been used to treat breast cancer and is being tested as a possible preventive.
Tamponade   Compression of a part or an organ, such as pericardial tamponade in which pericardial fluid compresses the heart.
Tannin   A component of some plants which has astringent properties.
Tapeworm   A parasitic worm that lives in the intestines; causes diarrhea and abdominal discomfort.
Tar   The sticky, brown substance in cigarettes that coats the lungs; causes lung and other cancers.
Tarsorrhaphy   A procedure in which the eyelids are sewn shut; performed to protect the corneas.
Tartar   Dental calculus or plaque.
TB   See Tuberculosis.
Tay-Sachs disease   A recessive genetic disorder common among Ashkenazi Jews in which the enzyme needed to break down certain lipids is absent.
Team management   Describes a treatment approach in which medical care is provided by a team of multidiciplinary health proffessionals (physician, nurse educator, homeopath, naturopath, herbalist, dietitian, behavioral scientist) working together with the patient.
Tear duct   A tiny passageway that drains lubricating tears from the surface of the eye to the back of the nose.
Technophobia   Fear of technology.
Telangiectasia   A redness of an area of skin, caused by enlargement and proliferation of the underlying small blood vessel.
Teletherapy   Treatment in which the radiation source is at a distance from the body. Linear accelerators and cobalt machines are used in teletherapy.
Temperature   The temperature is the specific degree of hotness or coldness of the body. It is usually measured with a thermometer.
Temperature method   A natural method of family planning in which a woman determines her time of ovulation by changes in her daily temperature.
Temporal arteritis   The inflammation and narrowing of arteries in the head and neck, including those in the scalp near the temple, which can cause blindness if untreated
Temporal lobes   Areas located on each side of the brain that are important in processing memory information as well as hearing and some language function.
Temporomandibular joint TMJ The joint between the lower jaw and the temporal bone of the skull.
Temporomandibular joint syndrome   Headache, facial pain, and jaw tenderness caused by irregularities in the way the joints, muscles, and ligaments in the jaw work together.
Tendinitis   The inflammation of a tendon, usually caused by injury, characterized by pain, tenderness, and sometimes limited movement in the attached muscle
Tendon   Connective tissue that joins muscle to bone.
Tendon transfer   The surgical cutting and repositioning of a tendon so that the muscle attached to it has a new function
Tenesmus   Urgent feeling of having to have a bowel movement or to urinate.
Tennis elbow   A form of tendinitis that causes pain and tenderness in the elbow and forearm.
Tenosynovitis   An inflammation of the inner lining of the sheath that covers a tendon.
Tenovaginitis   An inflammation of the fibrous wall of the sheath that covers a tendon.
TENS   See Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation
Tension headache   A headache caused by emotional strain or tension in the muscles of the head and neck.
Teratogens   Agents that cause congenital defects in a developing embryo or fetus.
Teratoma   A tumor composed of cells not normally found in the part of the body when the tumor occurred .
Termination of pregnancy   See Abortion.
Terpenes   Complex hydrocarbons (C10H16). Most volatile oils are mostly terpenes.
Testes Testicles The male reproductive organs that produce sperm and the male sex hormones; testicles.
Testicular feminization factor   A genetic disorder in which an individual who is genetically male has the external appearance of a female because the body is unresponsive to testosterone.
Testicular torsion   Severe pain and swelling of a testicle, due to twisting of the spermatic cord.
Testosterone   Male sex hormone produced by the testes.
Tetanus   A sometimes fatal disease affecting the brain and spinal cord; caused by infection with bacterium present in soil and manure.
Tetanus-diphtheria booster   A follow-up dose of a vaccine for Tetanus and Diphtheria.
Tetracyclines   A group of antibiotic drugs used to treat a wide variety of infections, including bronchitis and some types of pneumonia.
Tetralogy of Fallot   A genetic heart disease involving four structural defects in the heart, which result in insufficient levels of oxygen in the blood.
Thalamus   A structure in the brain that relays and processes incoming sensory information from the eyes and ears and from pressure and pain receptors.
Thalassemia   Inherited anemias (includes alpha thalassemia, beta thalassemia, etc.) found predominantly among people of Mediterranean descent.
Thalassophobia   Fear of the ocean.
Thallium scanning   A type of radionuclide scanning used to assess the heart.
Therapeutic   Pertaining to treatment.
Therapeutic range   The range of doses of a drug that will produce beneficial results without side effects.
Thiazide   A type of drug used to reduce sodium retention in the body and promote fluid loss.
Thoracentesis   Removal of fluid in the pleura through a needle.
Thoracic   Having to do with the chest (thorax).
Thoracoscopy   The range of doses of a drug that will produce beneficial results without side effects.
Thoracotomy   A procedure in which the chest is surgically opened to operate on an organ in the chest cavity.
Thorax   The portion of the anatomy below the neck and above the diaphragm; the chest.
Thrills   Vibrations due to abnormal blood flow.
Thrombectomy   The removal of a blood clot.
Thrombin   An enzyme crucial to the process of blood coagulation.
Thrombocytes   Microscopic particles involved in the clotting process; platelets.
Thrombocytopenic purpura   A decrease in the number of platelets in the blood, causing abnormal bleeding of blood vessels into the skin.
Thromboembolism   The blockage of a blood vessel by a blood clot fragment that has broken off and traveled from another area of the body.
Thrombolysis   The dissolution of blood clots.
Thrombophlebitis   Clotting of blood and inflammation in a vein.
Thrombosis   Formation of blood clots.
Thrombus   Blood clot.
Thrush   Fungus infection of the mouth.
Thymoma   A tumor of the thymus gland.
Thymus   A gland located in the upper chest that produces T cells, essential in the body's immune response.
Thymus gland   An immune system gland located in the upper part of the chest that plays an important role in the production of T-lymphocytes.
Thyroglossal cyst   A swelling at the front of the neck; forms from a duct that fails to disappear during embryonic development.
Thyroid gland   Endocrine gland in the neck that produces the hormones thyroxine and calcitonin.
Thyroiditis   An inflammation of the thyroid gland.
Thyroid stimulating hormone TSH A chemical messenger regulating thyroid activity and produced by the pituitary gland, in excessive amounts when the thyroid gland fails to respond because of underactivity.
Thyrotoxicosis   A toxic condition resulting from overactivity of the thyroid gland.
Thyroxine Thyroxin Thyroid hormone that controls the pace of chemical activity in the body.
TIA   See Transient ischemic attack.
Tibia   The larger of the two bones in the lower leg; the shin bone.
Tibial osteotomy   Surgical removal of a short segment or wedge of the shin-bone in order to shorten it or alter its angulation.
Tibialis anterior muscle   A shin muscle which pulls up the great toe.
Tic   An involuntary muscular contraction; a twitch or movement.
Tic douloureux   See Trigeminal neuralgia.
Ticks   Small, eight-legged animals that can attach to humans and animals and feed on blood; sometimes spread infectious organisms via their bites
Tietze's syndrome   An inflammation of the cartilage that joins ribs to the breastbone, causing chest pain.
Tincture   A medication that is an alcoholic solution of an extract of a vegetable or animal substance or a chemical.
Tinea Ringworm A group of common infections occurring on the skin, hair, and nails that are caused by a fungus.
Tinnitus Ringing of the ears A persistent ringing or buzzing sound in the ear.
Tipped uterus   An abnormal condition in which the uterus is tilted backward instead of slightly forward.
Tissue   A collection of similar cells that form a body structure.
Tissue plasminogen activator   A substance produced by the body and as a genetically engineered drug to prevent abnormal blood clotting.
Tissue typing   The tests used to determine the compatibility of tissues used in grafts and transplants.
T-lymphocyte   A type of white blood cell that fights infections and destroys abnormal cells directly; as compared with releasing antibodies to fight infection.
T-lymphocyte killer cell   A type of T-lymphocyte white blood cell that attaches to abnormal cells and releases chemicals that destroy them.
TMJ syndrome   See Temporomandibular joint syndrome
Tocolysis   The therapeutic interruption of premature labour.
Tocolytic medications   Medications used to inhibit labor.
Tolerance   The decreased sensitivity of the body to a certain drug, usually either because the liver becomes more efficient at breaking down the drug or the body's tissues become less sensitive to it; increased tolerance creates a need for a higher dose of the drug in order to have the same effects.
Tonic   Medicinal preparations used to restore normal tone to tissues or to stimulate the appetite.
Tonometry   The procedure used to measure the pressure within the eye; is useful in detecting glaucoma.
Tonsillectomy   The surgical removal of the tonsils, usually to treat tonsillitis.
Tonsillitis   The infection and inflammation of the tonsils.
Tonsils   Two masses of lymphatic tissue, located on either side of the back of the throat.
Topical   Pertaining to the surface of the body.
Topical chemotherapy   Treatment with anticancer drugs in a lotion or cream.
Topophobia Stage fright Fear of performing.
Total parenteral nutrition   Providing the body's nutritional needs by a balanced mixture of basic constituents supplied by intravenous infusion.
Tourette's syndrome   A movement disorder characterized by involuntary tics and noises, and in some cases uncontrollable shouting of obscenities.
Tourniquet   A device that is tightened over an extremity to stop bleeding.
Toxemia   The presence of bacterial toxins in the blood.
Toxic   Poisonous.
Toxic epidermal necrolysis   A severe rash in which the outer layers of skin blister and peel off.
Toxicity   The extent to which a substance is poisonous.
Toxic shock syndrome   A life-threatening condition caused by a staphylococci toxin.
Toxin   A poisonous substance.
Toxocariasis   Human infestation with the larvae of a worm found in the intestines of dogs.
Toxoid   A toxin treated so that it is no longer harmful but will induce antibodies to form. An example is tetanus toxoid.
Toxoplasmosis   An infectious disease caused by a microscopic parasite found in infected, undercooked meat and the feces of cats.
TPA   See Tissue plasminogen activator
Trachea   The tube that connects the throat (pharynx) to the bronchial tubes in the lungs; the windpipe.
Tracheitis   An inflammation of the windpipe.
Tracheosophageal puncture   A small opening made by a surgeon between the esophagus and the trachea. A valve keeps food out of the trachea but lets air into the esophagus for esophageal speech.
Tracheostomy   Surgery to create an opening (stoma) into the windpipe. The opening itself may also be called a tracheostomy.
Tracheostomy tube Trach tube, Trake tube A 2- to 3-inch metal or plastic tube that keeps the stoma and trachea open.
Tracheotomy   The insertion of a tube through a surgical opening in the trachea to maintain an open airway.
Trachoma   A persistent, contagious form of conjunctivitis that can lead to complications such as blindness if untreated.
Traction   Mechanical pulling on a body part, used in treating certain fractures and dislocations.
Tranquilizer   Medication used to reduce tension and anxiety.
Transcutaneous   Through the skin
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation   A method of relieving pain by applying tiny electrical impulses to nerve endings beneath the skin.
Transducer   A device that translates pressure, temperature, pulse or sound to an electrical signal.
Transection   Cutting across, typically a tubular organ.
Transesophageal echocardiography   Echocardiography in which the transducer is placed in the esophagus to gain clearer images of the heart.
Transferrin   A substance in the blood that transports iron throughout the body.
Transfusion   Delivery of blood or a blood component into the bloodstream.
Transient ischemic attack TIA Symptoms caused by temporary lack of circulation to part of the brain.
Transitional cell carcinoma   Cancer that develops in the lining of the renal pelvis. This type of cancer also occurs in the ureter and the bladder.
Transmissible   Able to be passed from one organism to another
Transplantation   The surgical transfer of an organ or tissue from one position (or person) to another.
Transthoracic needle aspiration   Sampling liquid or semiliquid material through a hollow needle introduced through the chest wall into the lung.
Transurethral prostatectomy   The removal of cancerous tissue from the prostate gland using a resectoscope (a long, narrow instrument passed up the urethra), which allows the surgeon to simultaneously view the prostate and cut away the cancerous tissue
Transurethral resection TUR Surgery performed with a special instrument inserted through the urethra.
Transvaginal   Through the vagina, such as a transvaginal ultrasound.
Transvaginal ultrasound TVS Sound waves sent out by a probe inserted in the vagina. The waves bounce off the ovaries, and a computer uses the echoes to create a picture called a sonogram.
Transverse colon   The part of the large bowel between the ascending and descending colon, lying in the upper abdomen.
Trauma   The process or event leading to an injury or wound.
Travelers' diarrhea   Diarrhea when traveling in a foreign country, caused by contaminated food or water.
Treatment port Treatment field The place on the body at which aradiation beam is aimed.
Tremor   An involuntary trembling.
Triage   A system used to classify sick or injured people according to the severity of their conditions.
Triceps   Muscle in the upper arm that extends the forearm.
Trichiasis   The growth of the eyelashes inward toward the cornea, causing persistent irritation of the eyeball.
Trichinosis   Infestation by the larvae of the parasitic worm Trichinella spiralis, usually acquired by eating undercooked pork
Trichomoniasis   An infection of the vagina by the single-celled parasite Trichomonas vaginilis, which may cause inflammation, itchiness, and discharge from the vagina.
Tricuspid valve   Heart valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle.
Tricyclic antidepressants   Substances used in the treatment of clinical depression.
Trifoliate   A plant having three distinctive leaflets.
Trigeminal nerve   The nerve that delivers sensory stimuli to the brain from the face, teeth and tongue.
Trigeminal neuralgia   A disorder of the trigeminal nerve (a cranial nerve) that causes brief attacks of severe pain in the lips, cheeks, gums, or chin on one side of the face.
Triglyceride   A form of fat that the body can make from sugar, alcohol or excess calories.
Trimester   One of the three periods of pregnancy, each lasting about 3 months.
Triple X syndrome   The presence of an extra X chromosome in a woman, which may cause some degree of mental retardation.
Triskaidekaphoba   Fear of the number 13.
Trismus   The medical term for lockjaw.
Trisomy   The presence in the cells of three copies of a certain chromosome instead of the normal two copies.
Trisomy 21   See Down syndrome
Tropophobia   Fear of moving or making changes.
Truncal obesity   Fat deposited in the thorax and abdomen, instead of the hips and thighs.
Truss   A device used to hold a hernia or organ in position.
Tubal ligation   The tying and cutting of the fallopian tubes to prevent the egg from becoming fertilized following sexual intercourse.
Tubal pregnancy   A pregnancy that develops in the fallopian tube rather than in the uterus. Also called ectopic pregnancy.
Tube   A plastic device surgically placed through the eardrum for equalising air pressure in the presence of faulty functioning of the eustachian tube.
Tuber   Blockage of the fallopian tubes, either pathological (usually by scar tissue following damage from infection), or surgical for the purpose of sterilisation.
Tuberrculin test Tuberrculin skin test Skin tests performed to determine previous infection with tuberculosis; can help rule out the possibility of being currently infected with tuberculosis.
Tuberculosis   An infectious bacterial disease transmitted through the air that mainly affects the lungs.
Tuberous sclerosis   A genetic disorder of the skin and nervous system characterized by epilepsy, mental retardation, and a skin condition resembling acne.
Tuboplasty   The surgical repair of a damaged fallopian tube to treat infertility.
Tubule   A small tube or canal, especially in the kidneys.
Tubules   The tubes of the kidney involved in the reabsorption of fluid and other essential substances such as amino acids, sugar, and calcium.
Tumor   A new growth of tissue; a neoplasm.
Tumor debulking   Surgically removing as much of the tumor as possible.
Tumor markers   Substances circulating in the blood which are produced by tumors. The level of the tumor marker may reflect the activity or extent of the tumor.
Tunnel vision   The loss of peripheral vision so that only objects directly ahead can be seen; most commonly due to damage caused by increased pressure within the eye (glaucoma).
Turner's syndrome   A genetic disorder in women in which only one X chromosome is present, or both chromosomes are present but one is defective.
T waves   Normally upright deflection smaller on electrocardiogram, following the major (QRS) deflection, and representing electrical repolarisation of the ventricles of the heart.
Two step procedure   Biopsy and treatment done in two stages, usually a week or two apart.
Tylenol #3   A moderate strength prescription painkiller consisting of Acetaminophen and Codeine.
Tympanic membrane   The eardrum.
Tympanoplasty   A surgical procedure used to treat hearing loss in which the eardrum or structures in the middle ear are repaired.
Tympanostomy   Surgical puncture of the eardrum, for diagnostic or therapeutic reasons.
Type I diabetes mellitus Juvenile diabetes, Juvenile-onset diabetes, ketosis-prone diabetes Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. A chronic disease in which the pancreas makes little or no insulin because the beta cells have been destroyed, and body cells are unable to use glucose for energy. Onset is generally abrupt. The symptoms of IDDM include: great thirst, hunger, frequent urination, and weight loss. To treat the disease, the person must inject insulin, follow a diet plan, and exercise daily. IDDM usually occurs in children and in adults under age 30.
Typhoid fever   An acute bacterial infection causing fever, headache, abdominal discomfort, and enlargement of the liver and spleen.
Typhus   A group of diseases caused by the microorganism rickettsia, spread by the bites of fleas, mites, or ticks; symptoms include headache, fever, rash, and a series of complications if untreated.
Tyramine   Chemical component of the body. In normal quantities, without interference from other chemicals, tyramine helps sustain normal blood pressure. In the presence of some drugs monamine-oxidase inhibitors and some rauwolfia compunds tyramine levels can rise and cause toxic or fatal levels in the blood.

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